What is ERS in F1?(: formula 1 energy recovery system)


Formula 1 racing is known for its technical sophistication and the use of cutting-edge innovations. One of the technologies widely used in F1 racing is the Energy Recovery System (ERS), a power unit that converts wasted energy into usable power. This technology is also used in road cars and is expected to be more widely adopted soon. This article will discuss the details of ERS in F1, its advantages and disadvantages, and its potential applications.

Definition of ERS

The energy Recovery System (ERS) is one of the essential components of modern Formula 1 (F1) cars and is credited with revolutionizing racing as we know it today. ERS consists of two main components: the Motor Generator Unit‑Kinetic (MGU-K) used to harvest kinetic energy, and Motor Generator Unit‑Heat (MGU-H) for harvesting heat energy. The MGU-K is connected directly to the rear axle through a motor and generates electricity when braking. At the same time, the MGU-H extracts thermal energy from the exhaust system and converts it into electricity.

Overall, ERS helps reduce fuel consumption and provides an extra 150bhp boost by harvesting thermal and mechanical energy from brakes, turbochargers,s and exhaust systems used during acceleration. This allows drivers to drive faster with less engine power expended for each lap, reducing overall race time.

History of ERS

An energy Recovery System (ERS) is a form of kinetic energy recovery system in the sport of Formula One. The system was introduced and banned multiple times over the sport’s history. In 2014, ERS-K, short for Kinetic Energy Recovery System or KERS, was introduced as a replacement for the former KERS kinetic energy recovery systems that had been active before 2014. It is still used today in Formula One racing.

Energy Recovery Systems first saw use in four track events during the 2008 F1 Grand Prix season and were made official in 2009. The primary function of the ERS-K system is to take excess energy from braking events and use it to power an electric motor mounted in front of the engine.

This motor then puts out a maximum of 60 kW under full acceleration, otherwise known as ‘boost’ power. This system also took advantage of regenerative braking, whereby some of the energy used during deceleration was sent back into the battery to be stored so it could be released through acceleration.

Using easy-to-produce exhaust heat, electric motors, and batteries instead of heavy flywheels, engineers could save weight when designed efficiently while maintaining consistent performance compared to their predecessors. In 2009 at Morozovring Raceway, d’Ambrosio finished 4th despite having no rear brakes thanks to earlier brake failure, making this one of if not perhaps FDRS-K’s first success stories resulting from its introduction in F1 racing three years prior.

F1 teams currently use the hybrid version of ERS (hybrid). It uses multiple kinetic energy recovery systems, including Motor Generator Units and Battery Energy Storage Systems. These can be recovered by braking events or backpressure from exhaust gas turbine blades. This allows for superior technical capabilities during competition races and enables them to achieve higher gains regardless of external environmental changes that may affect torque output characteristics toward the power control device.

Components of ERS

An energy Recovery System (ERS) is used in Formula 1 racing that helps improve the vehicle’s performance. It works by capturing and storing the energy generated during braking and accelerations, which can be deployed to provide a power boost to the engine. This system comprises several components, which are explained in detail below.

Motor Generator Unit-Kinetic (MGU-K)

The Motor Generator Unit-Kinetic, or MGU-K, is a significant component of the ERS system utilized in Formula One racing. Its primary purpose is to help to increase a car’s speed by converting energy created by braking into electrical power, which can then be stored and deployed when needed. It acts as an engine and an electric generator, relying on the speed of spinning components to create electricity. This electricity can then be used to boost acceleration or reach higher speeds.

The MGU-K comprises four main components: rotor, stator, magnet, and motor windings. The rotor spins when heated air passes through it, and the magnetic rotors draw electrical energy from it. The stator works with the rotor to produce more electric power and prevent any build-up of unwanted heat from occurring within the unit. The motor windings take all the electrical energy generated by the MGU-K and store it for later use during acceleration or to reach higher speeds more quickly.

Motor Generator Unit-Heat (MGU-H)

The Motor Generator Unit-Heat (MGU-H) is an essential component of the Energy Recovery System (ERS). This complex system stores and discharges energy, turning kinetic energy acquired through braking into heat and vice versa. It also captures electrical power from the turbocharger during exhaust flow stored within the battery or returned directly to the ICE for increased efficiency.

The MGU-H has many advanced features, including a unique expandable turbine shaft that can vary rotational speed between zero and 50,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) with very high efficiency. It also uses an innovative carbon fiber rotor assembly that is extremely light while still retaining its strength. The components are designed together in such a way as to reduce friction loss, allowing more efficient capturing of exhaust energy than previous generations.

The MGU-H has become increasingly important in recent years with technical regulation changes, particularly about recovery units. Preseason testing revealed dramatic gains in lap times due to its implementation into the ERS design. Longer deployment times of these systems have been permitted by rule changes, too, allowing drivers to continue charging their batteries even after crossing the finish line on race day. It has been a major factor why Formula 1 cars have become quicker year after year.

Energy Store (ES)

The Energy Store (ES) is an integrated component of the modern Formula 1 power unit and serves as a reservoir for energy recovery from the exhaust and braking systems. The ES consists of the internal combustion engine (ICE), turbocharger, electric motor generator units (MGUs), and a battery pack that captures, stores, and releases energy.

Energy recovered from the exhaust system is saved using the MGU-H unit in the ES. When a driver brake or is on throttle lift-off, kinetic energy is captured through the MGU-K unit, which converts it into electrical energy stored in the ES. The driver can access this energy to provide an ‘extra boost’ when needed. The battery pack should not be confused with the Internal Combustion Engine, which produces propulsion power and recovers kinetic and thermal energy for storage.

Control Electronics (CE)

The Control Electronics (CE) component of Electronic Racing Systems (ERS) is one of the most critical parts of a modern racing car. It controls electrical systems such as the ECU (Engine Control Unit), ABS, traction control, and many other vital functions. As these components become more complex and powerful, they must communicate effectively with each other and the car itself to maximize performance. The CE is responsible for managing this communication effectively and efficiently.

The CE combines software and hardware components that provide the required functionality. The hardware components include a Processor Unit, Digital Signal Processing Units, and power converters. The software component is responsible for writing algorithms to control functions related to ERS, such as ignition timing and throttle control, fuel map, turbocharger selection, cooling model control, and storing data from sensors about different aspects of turbocharger boost pressure and engine speed. For improved race performance, the CE can also use data from other cars on the track.

In addition to its hardware components, modern ERS systems are increasingly dependent on computer code written specifically for racing applications to optimize performance when conditions vary during races. With each iteration of software versions released by manufacturers such as Porsche or BMW providing more R&D feedback into higher performing setups at races worldwide, what next version will bring: completely automated lap times? Or driver-tunable parameters?

How ERS Works

The Energy Recovery System (ERS) is one of the most critical components in modern Formula 1 racing. It was introduced in 2009, and since then, it has been an integral part of a car’s performance. This article will discuss the basics of how the ERS works, its different components, and the benefits it provides. Let’s dive in and explore the world of ERS in Formula 1 racing.


The MGU-K (Motor Generator Unit Kinetic) is an integral part of the Energy Recovery System (ERS). It takes recovery energy from the brake system and converts it into electrical power. It is mounted directly to the rear of the gearbox, with its shaft linked directly to the engine’s crankshaft, allowing it to harvest kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost when a driver brakes on a corner.

When a driver brake and decelerates, the vehicle’s kinetic energy is harvested by an alternator connected to a motor in MGU-K. The alternator turns its shaft inside a housing containing magnets, generating an electrical current when subjected to magnetic fields. This electric charge then powers up the car’s battery or assists in launching it from stationary.

The power can then be used as an additional boost during acceleration or sent back to the crankshaft while braking, essentially ditching some weight off of brake discs and pads, enhancing braking performance, and decreasing tire wear as overall fuel consumption during each race.


In Formula One, the motor generator unit–heat (MGU-H) is a hybrid electric component in the powertrain that recovers energy otherwise wasted as heat during turbocharger operation. The MGU-H is integrated with a compressor, a turbine, and an electronic control system. It converts moving energy from the turbocharger turbine shaft into electrical energy, which can charge an onboard battery or provide increased power delivered to the engine’s internal combustion process.

When used to deliver energy directly back into the engine’s combustion cycle, this is referred to as Energy Recovery System (ERS) technology. In turbocharged engines, ERS can recover up to 50% of the otherwise lost energy through conventional exhaust systems. This allows for more excellent power outputs and efficiency gains than conventional powertrains without compromising emissions targets or performance qualities.


Engineer Release System, or ERS, is an all-in-one control system that enables Formula 1 race teams to operate their current and hybrid-power systems on the race track. It comprises some components, including a battery, motor, and generator connected directly to an engine’s ECU, as well as a clutch and gearbox.

The goal of the ERS is threefold: To provide maximum power output through the use of both internal combustion engines and electric motors, to reduce the effects of power outputs caused by engine degradation, and to give teams more control over engine operations in qualifying sessions and during long-distance races.

For drivers and teams to have maximum control over their vehicles, data gathered from sensors across a car’s power unit are sent back to ERS systems. This data can be used to alter engine output settings like fuel injection timing, airflow settings, or turbo boost level to make issues like performance losses due to turbo lag more controllable. The system also monitors all operating temperature levels throughout the car’s entire power train so drivers can know when it is safe to push harder.

The system works through algorithms programmed into an integrated electronic controller with decisions based on driver inputs (throttle/pedal position) and sensors scattered throughout the race car (oil temperature, intake air pressure, etc.). This algorithm decides how much energy should be distributed from each battery/electrical motor combination depending on current track conditions.

When combined with innovative software developed specifically for identifying areas for improvement within engine performance or fuel efficiency, ERS can provide invaluable insight for engineers when refining existing F1 specifications or even creating new ones altogether.


The Energy Recovery System (ERS) is an advanced technology employed by Formula 1 teams to provide their cars with additional electric power. It works through kinetic and thermal energy recovery systems, collectively known as ERS-K (Kinetic) and ERS-H (Heat).

The Kinetic Energy Recovery System, or ERS-K, works by harvesting the “kinetic” energy created when a car slows down— for example, during braking. The energy is converted into electrical energy and stored in a battery which can then be deployed later, providing an extra power boost when needed.

The Heat Energy Recovery System, or ERS-H, takes the heat from engine exhaust gases and converts it into valuable electrical energy. This stored energy can then be used either to deliver an extra “push” on the straights or could be returned directly to the power unit itself. By channeling this stored heat back into the engine’s cooling system, it aids with keeping temperatures under control to increase performance and reliability.

Benefits of ERS

Energy Recovery Systems (ERS) are a crucial part of Formula 1 cars. It is a system used to harvest and reuse the vehicle’s lost kinetic energy while traveling. This allows the cars to generate additional power, giving them a competitive advantage. In this article, we will explore the benefits of the ERS system and how it can be used to increase performance in Formula 1 cars.

Improved Performance

The use of ERS technology in Formula 1 has dramatically improved race performance and is a critical factor in the success of modern Grand Prix cars. ERS provides an extra power boost when needed to supplement the power generated by the car’s internal combustion engine. Depending on the team’s strategy, the added power can be deployed for up to 33 seconds per lap.

ERS uses electrical energy stored in a battery to power a motor-generator unit that can either add or recover energy from the powertrain. The system consists of two parts, the Motor Generator Unit-Kinetic (MGU-K) and Motor Generator Unit-Heat (MGU-H). The MGU-K stores electricity generated under braking and releases it for turbocharging under acceleration, resulting in improved acceleration and response time.

Meanwhile, the MGU-H recovers waste energy from exhaust gases and transfers it back into electrical power, which can spin up the turbocharger more quickly. This improves throttle response resulting in more precise driving control.

In addition to providing more excellent performance, ERS is also responsible for helping teams save precious fuel during races by allowing them to deploy higher levels of torque over sustained periods. This reduces fuel burn and subsequently affects tire wear, resulting in fewer pit stops required throughout races due to less need for refueling and tire changes.

Cost Savings

The energy Recovery System (ERS) is a state-of-the-art device used in Formula One race cars to harvest energy from the car’s movement and convert it into electrical energy. With this energy, the car can run more efficiently for a more extended period. By harvesting and storing the energy created from slowing down, ERS technology helps make Formula One cars more fuel efficient and reduce emissions.

Cost savings is one of the significant benefits of ERS technology. It allows teams to save money on fuel by reducing reliance on traditional fossil fuels. It also keeps them on costs associated with purchasing new parts as components are reused more often due to less wear on engine components as they receive assistance from ERS.

The system also optimizes performance, helping vehicles reach higher speeds in a shorter time and decreasing lap times, giving drivers an edge over competitors during races. ERS technology can also benefit teams’ travel costs by providing team members with faster travel times between teams’ offices and race tracks while saving fuel that would be used otherwise.

Environmental Impact

Formula One teams are continuously investigating methods to reduce the environmental impact of their activities, on the track and off it. One of those initiatives is the introduction of the Energy Recovery System (ERS). This modern technology represents a significant breakthrough in helping F1 teams reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption.

The Energy Recovery System (ERS) is designed to capture the energy that would otherwise be wasted, such as braking or exhaust heat energy, and store it for future use. This energy is then used to power an alternative system, such as a turbocharger or an auxiliary electric motor, that provides additional power to the car. In this way, ERS can help produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and enable teams to reduce their fuel consumption by up to 40%.

In addition to affecting fuel efficiency, ERS can also decrease hazardous waste products such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxide (NOx). ERS helps reduce air pollution levels with numerous environmental benefits by reducing these harmful pollutants. Additionally, ERS minimizes the amount of waste heat generated during driving conditions by improving cooling systems. This further improves engine performance while simultaneously reducing fuel consumption.

ERS provides numerous benefits for car performance and environmental sustainability in F1 racing. It has enabled teams to reduce their CO2 emissions while simultaneously improving car performance. Ascrewss work towards achieving FIA regulations concerning emission reduction targets over the coming years, we expect ERS to continue its essential role in Formula One racing.


In summary, the Energy Recovery System is a technology that helps F1 cars improve their performance in terms of energy efficiency. The technology transforms energy produced during braking into electrical energy that can be used to power the vehicle. ERS provides teams with more control over the car’s electrical and thermal systems, allowing for increased fuel efficiency and better overall performance on the track. Groups can further capitalize on ERS by optimizing the system for specific circuits and weather conditions to maximize performance.

What is ERS in F1?(: formula 1 energy recovery system)
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